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Hydraulic fracturing fluid

The content of hydraulic fracturing fluid is adapted to the geological conditions of each well site.

Hydraulic fracturing fluid is typically 98-99.5 per cent water and sand, with the remaining 0.5-2 per cent comprised of chemical additives that are needed to make the process more effective (e.g. reducing friction, preventing corrosion, inhibiting bacterial growth). Many of these substances are found in household products such as cosmetics, shampoo and cleaning products.

Hydraulic fracturing fluids
Chart — Hydraulic fracturing fluids | *Ingredients may vary according to the properties of the given formation and upon an individual company's formula.

See this table in a PDF version.
Hydraulic fracturing flowback and water produced during the process is increasingly being recycled by industry to minimize any potential environmental impacts and use of local water infrastructure.